Avoiding Patterns in the Abelian Sense
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Currie, J., and V. Linek. "Avoiding Patterns in the Abelian Sense." Canadian Journal of Mathematics 53(4) (1 August 2001): 696-714. DOI: 10.4153/CJM-2001-028-4.
We classify all 3 letter patterns that are avoidable in the abelian sense. A short list of four letter patterns for which abelian avoidance is undecided is given. Using a generalization of Zimin words we deduce some properties of ω-words avoiding these patterns.